Centrifuge Machine Types and Their Uses in Laboratories


A centrifuge is a piece of machinery used to rotate or spin an object around a fixed axis. And force perpendicular to the spin axis is used to achieve this. This force may be mighty. Although there are various laboratory centrifuge machines, they all operate according to the same sedimentation principle.

How Do Different Centrifuge Machine Types Operate?

Centrifuges machines are used in laboratories to separate two materials with similar densities or when a dissolved solution contains insoluble particulates.

Since the rotor accelerates, a centripetal force acts on the rotor and laboratory centrifuge machine tubes. And all types of centrifuges operate according to the sedimentation principle.

Due to this action, the lighter particles move towards the centre while the denser materials in the tubes are forced to move outward in a circular motion.

On occasion, several particles adhere to the centrifuge tubes’ bottoms. But the crystal-clear liquid is referred to as the supernatant, and these particles are called pellets.

A centrifuge is typically set to rotate at a specific rate or revolutions per minute (rpm). However, despite having different diameters, two rotors can spin at the same speed.

These rotors’ acceleration will also vary because their radii and angular momentums differ. Another factor is the rotor’s size. Relative Centrifugal Force (RCF) is the accepted standard unit.

These are the various kinds of centrifuges that are frequently utilised in laboratories.

Microcentrifuge 

As the name implies, they have a tiny design footprint, which means they don’t take up much room on the workbench. These are frequently used in biological applications and are suitable for use with small tubes (up to 2.0 ml).

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Some of these have rotors or rotor adaptors that are different from one another and can accommodate lines of various sizes. These are used to microfilter small amounts of aqueous samples while holding pelleted nucleic acids, proteins, and other substances from solutions.

Centrifuges that can be chilled

These are employed for storing samples that require a constant temperature. These centrifuges must run as quickly as possible while maintaining a continuous degree.

Refrigerate centrifuges have a temperature range of -20 to -40 degrees Celsius, making them ideal for analysing DNA, RNA, PCR, and antibodies. But the material in refrigerated centrifuges is used to seal the compartments as necessary.

They come in various arrangements, including swing buckets, fixed angle, and both. Different applications call for small and large-capacity refrigerate centrifuges. And  they are frequently use to collect sedimenting materials like yeast cells chloroplasts quickly.

Quickly Cooled Centrifuges

These centrifuges are powerful enough to collect proteins, microorganisms, more prominent cell organelles, and cellular debris, among other things. There are many different sizes and holding capacities available for high-speed refrigerator centrifuges.

ultracentrifuges

These laboratory centrifuge machines have an extremely high acceleration capacity of up to 1,000,000 g. Users of ultracentrifuges can separate molecules like proteins and nucleic acids by taking advantage of their minute differences.

Ultracentrifuges come in two varieties:

a. Ultracentrifuges for preparation

These are most frequently used to clarify suspensions that contain particles. And they isolate denser particles for pellet collection, and separate particles based on their densities.

They support the separation of plasma’s macromolecules and lipoprotein components. As well as Deprotonating bodily fluids, which is done to study amino acids.

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And it is possible to equip a preparative ultracentrifuge with various rotor types that spin numerous samples at multiple angles and speeds.

b.Analysis-focused ultracentrifuges

These have a light-based optical detection system that makes it possible to watch samples spin in real-time. And users can observe the sedimentation process.

As the selection concentrates under increasing laboratory centrifugal machines force, they can follow it. But the Rayleigh interferometric system, the alternative Schlieren system, and the light absorption system are a few of the optical systems used for analysis.


John Robert

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