What is the difference between plasma and serum? Blood plasma is the liquid part of blood that contains water, clotting factors, and proteins. It helps transport nutrients, hormones, and antibodies across the body.
It is separated from whole blood by adding an anticoagulant (EDTA, citrate, and heparin) to the test tube before centrifuging it. This causes the clot to fall to the bottom of the tube and liquid plasma is collected at the top.
Proteins are large macromolecular molecules composed of more than 100 amino acids linked together in a long peptide chain. They are used to perform important functions such as cell growth, DNA synthesis, energy production, and cellular repair.
They are also important for regulating body temperature and pH balance . Plasma consists of proteins that help in the transportation of nutrients, hormones, antibodies, and other essential substances throughout the bloodstream.
Serum, on the other hand, contains proteins and other fluids that are released by cells. It also includes antibodies that can be used to develop countermeasures against pathogens and poisons.
Plasma is the straw-colored transparent part of blood that remains after it has been coagulated by clotting factors such as heparin, EDTA, and sodium citrate. It is a major component of the bloodstream, accounting for about 55% of total blood volume.
Electrolytes are minerals in your body that conduct electricity when dissolved in water. They play key roles in your body’s normal functioning.
They help regulate the distribution of water, govern acid-base balance, and transmit nerve impulses. They also contribute to energy generation and blood clotting.
Major electrolytes include sodium, potassium, and chloride. Others are calcium, phosphate, and bicarbonate.
Sodium helps to regulate the ICF osmolality and the extracellular fluid volume, which is important for nerve and muscle cells. Chloride helps to maintain the osmotic pressure of gastric mucosa and is necessary for hydrochloric acid production.
In addition to these electrolytes, your blood contains several other chemicals that help your body function normally. These chemicals are called fluids, and when they get out of balance they can lead to a number of symptoms including fatigue, weakness, and dizziness.
Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins that bind to foreign substances, or antigens, to help the immune system detect and destroy them. They are also the key to your body’s ability to recognize viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites.
An antibody is a Y-shaped protein that contains two light chains and two heavy chains, or a kappa light chain and lambda light chain (Figure 1). The N-terminus of each heavy chain associates with one of the light chains to form an antigen-binding domain.
A paratope at each tip of the Y resembles a lock and key and enables the antibody to bind with precision to antigens. This Y shape then triggers a cascade of actions that helps your immune system find, tag, and ultimately destroy the foreign invader.
Antibodies can be made in two different ways: attached to B cells, and unattached and found in extracellular fluids such as blood plasma. This soluble form is released into the bloodstream after an antigen binds to B cell receptors.
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Blood plasma is a yellowish liquid that contains clotting factors, antibodies, antigens, and hormones. It is used to detect diseases such as high cholesterol, heart disease, blood pressure, and diabetes.
Blood clotting is essential to ensure that you don’t bleed excessively during an injury or surgery. Without clotting, you could experience severe bleeding or develop a life-threatening condition.
A clot forms when the endothelium of a blood vessel breaks down and exposes subendothelial collagen and von Willebrand factor (vWF). This exposure results in the conformational change on platelets that exposes glycoprotein IIb/IIIa and phosphatidylserine.
A tangled network of filaments forms the clot, which is then cross-linked by thrombin, an enzyme formed from prothrombin. During coagulation, vWF and fibrinogen also interact to control the formation of a clot.