Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a treatment for serious depression that stimulates brain nerve cells using magnetic fields. A “noninvasive” method is one that doesn’t need surgery or skin incision, thus the name. TMS, which has been given the FDA’s approval, is often only used after other depression therapies have failed to work.
This procedure is referred to as repetitive TMS, or rTMS, when it is used to treat depression, OCD, and tobacco dependence.
Table of Contents
The incidence of major depressive disorder (MDD) and its effects
The prevalence of MDD is very high and steadily increasing;between 2005 and 2018, there were 13.7 million more individuals in the USA who had been diagnosed with the disorder, bringing the prevalence rate up to 7.1%. Age distribution of the increased prevalence is uneven, with those between the ages of 18 and 34 seeing the most rise.
The article’s goal and structure
This comprehensive review of research on the burden of MDD offers a chance for fresh understanding of the many factors that influence the health consequences linked to this condition.
Having a Better Understanding of Major Depression
MDD’s description and classification
One of the most taxing disorders in the world, major depressive disorder (MDD) has a considerable detrimental influence on daily living activities, quality of life, cognitive function, job status, and productivity at the workplace.
Your physician could identify you as having depression based on:
- Exam of the body. Your physician could do a physical examination and inquire about your health.
- Tests in the lab. For instance, your doctor could check your thyroid to see whether it is working correctly or do a blood test called a complete blood count.
- Psychiatric assessment. Your mental health expert will enquire about your signs, patterns of thinking and behavior, and emotions.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) issued by the American Psychiatric Association may be used by your mental health provider to determine if you meet the criteria for depression.
The cost of depression to people, families, and society
- An estimated 3.8% of people in the population suffer from depression, including 5.7% of those over 60 and 5% of adults (4% of males and 6% of women).
- Around 280 million individuals worldwide suffer from depression.
- Women are around 50% more likely than males to experience depression. More than 10% of pregnant and recently delivered mothers suffer depression globally. Every year, around 700,000 individuals commit suicide.
- For those aged 15 to 29, suicide is the fourth most common cause of death.
The requirement for novel treatment strategies
Psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of the two are often used in the treatment of MDD. Patients with less severe forms of depression are more likely to be treated alone with psychotherapy, but those with moderate-to-severe forms are more likely to be treated with a mix of therapies or pharmaceuticals.
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Overview
Major depressive disorder therapy is one of its most recognized uses, particularly when patients are resistant to conventional antidepressants. TMS may reduce depression symptoms in certain people by modulating neural circuits linked to mood regulation by focusing on particular brain regions.
Different TMS devices use various treatment procedures to provide magnetic brain stimulation. These consist of:
The established version is rTMS, as was previously mentioned. It typically entails high-frequency stimulation of the prefrontal cortex of the brain.
Describe the TMS treatment.
Transcranial magnetic stimulation treatment, or TMS therapy, is a non-invasive method that stimulates brain nerve cells using electromagnetic fields. It is mostly used to treat depression and a few other neurological and psychiatric problems.
The origins and development of TMS as a depression treatment
TMS was first developed as a technique for neurological research in the 1980s. Clinical investigations demonstrating its effectiveness in altering mood-related brain circuits led to the discovery of its potential as a depression therapy in the 1990s.TMS gained popularity over time, which led to the FDA approving it as a treatment for treatment-resistant depression in 2008.
Accepted applications and security concerns
Although largely risk-free, it’s crucial to take into account each patient’s medical history and possible hazards before having the surgery.
TMS Uses Permitted:
- Serious depressive illness that is resistant to treatment.
- (In some jurisdictions) Obsessive-compulsive disorder.
- Migraine with aura (particularly for migraine prevention).
Considerations for safety
- When a person has non-removable metal in or near the head (such as cochlear implants or certain dental treatment), TMS should not be utilized.
- Seizures might happen sometimes when receiving TMS therapy.
The TMS Mechanism
The brain’s response to TMS
TMS uses scalp-mounted electromagnetic coils to create magnetic fields that cause electrical currents in certain brain areas. This modulation may change neuronal activity, affecting the brain’s mood, cognition, and behavior-related circuits.
Identifying and treating depression-related brain areas
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain area linked to mood regulation and often reported to be underactive in people with depression, is the focus of TMS particularly.
Electromagnetic pulses function in TMS
Coils are positioned over the scalp to produce electromagnetic pulses, which cause electrical currents in the brain tissue underneath. These currents control neuronal activity, allowing for the selective activation or inhibition of certain brain areas to affect cognitive and affective functions.
TMS Treatment Method
The normal setting and atmosphere for TMS treatment sessions is a serene, clinical one that is intended to put patients at ease. The treatment area is furnished with a chair that has been specially made for the patient as well as the TMS device itself, and often resembles a typical medical examination room.
A TMS Physician’s Role in Treatment Administration:
Prior to beginning treatment, the physician chooses the proper intensity and position of the magnetic pulses, often using a process known as “motor threshold determination.” Targeting the designated brain areas, the TMS coil is applied to the patient’s scalp during the real sessions.
Patient Comfort and Safety During TMS Sessions:
Safety is of the utmost importance during TMS treatment. In order to lessen the harsh clicking sound that the magnetic pulses might make, patients are given earplugs.
Proof of TMS Effectiveness
Key Clinical Study Findings and Summary:
The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-sponsored pivotal multicenter study demonstrated that TMS dramatically decreased depression symptoms, with some patients experiencing remission.
Comparing TMS to Other Depression therapies:
TMS provides an option for patients who don’t respond well to standard therapies for depression, such as antidepressant drugs and psychotherapy.
Long-term Effects and Durability of TMS Therapy:
Studies on the durability of TMS therapy show that its therapeutic effects may be maintained with follow-up sessions.
Considerations and Eligibility
Who is a Candidate for TMS Therapy?
Major depressive disorder sufferers, especially those who haven’t responded to conventional antidepressants, are most often advised to try TMS treatment.
Determining whether TMS is Appropriate for an Individual:
Considerations include the degree and length of depression, past treatment experience, and the existence of any contraindications (such as metal implants in the head).
Addressing Issues and Contraindications:
Patients with certain contraindications may not be good TMS treatment candidates.
What to Expect During TMS Therapy
Following this, a conventional course of therapy is started that is adapted to the requirements of the patient and the particular ailment being treated.
Frequency and Length of Sessions:
Each session lasts between 20 and 40 minutes, with the stimulation itself occurring often in brief bursts.
Potential TMS Sensations and Experiences:
This feeling may be startling at first, but it often becomes easier to tolerate with repeated sessions. Some people could compare it to a woodpecker tapping. Additionally, the equipment makes a clicking noise, which is why earplugs are often offered to lessen pain to the ears.
Non-Invasive Treatment with TMS
TMS and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) are both used to treat severe depression, however, they follow distinct philosophies. While TMS utilizes magnetic fields to stimulate certain brain areas, ECT uses electricity to cause a controlled seizure.
Benefits of TMS as a Non-Invasive Alternative:
TMS doesn’t involve any surgical incisions or implants since it is non-invasive. Patients may sit comfortably during sessions and resume their daily activities right away afterward because of the procedure’s simplicity. Many patients may find this simplicity and minimum interference with everyday life to be especially alluring.
The Lack of Anesthesia and Memory Loss:
One of the major advantages of TMS is that, unlike ECT, treatment does not require anesthesia. This lessens the dangers and length of recovery time related to sedative medications.
Risks and Potential Adverse Reactions
Common and Uncommon TMS Therapy Side Effects:
Although TMS is often well tolerated, some patients have common side effects such headaches, pain in the scalp, or lightheadedness.
Managing and Addressing Side Effects:
The majority of TMS side effects, such as headaches or discomfort in the scalp, are temporary and may be treated with over-the-counter analgesics.
The Importance of Proper Medical Supervision:
TMS should always be given under the direction of qualified specialists in a controlled environment to assure safety and effectiveness.
Patient Testimonials and Experiences
Real-world Accounts from People Who Have Received TMS Therapy:
Patients who have had TMS often tell accounts of change and rekindled optimism. Some people found relief with TMS after taking many medications without success.
The Effect of TMS on Patients’ Depressive Symptoms and Quality of Life:
Patients often speak of feeling lighter, happier, and more interested in everyday activities after receiving TMS.
Patient Perspective Insights:
From the patient’s perspective, TMS sessions might be initially unsettling due to the machine’s feel and loudness, which can take some getting accustomed to.
TMS Therapy in the Future
Current Research and Emerging Applications:
TMS research is constantly developing as researchers look at its potential for treating conditions other than depression, such as anxiety, PTSD, and neurological problems.
Increasing Access to TMS Therapy:
As the advantages of TMS are more well understood, efforts are being made to make it more accessible to individuals who need it.
The Role of TMS in Transforming Depression Treatment:
TMS is positioned to play a transformational role in the treatment of depression by providing a non-invasive, successful alternative, especially for individuals who are resistant to conventional treatments. This might possibly change the way that mental health issues are treated.
A summary of TMS therapy:
TMS for major depressive disorder works is given below. A cutting-edge method of treating Major Depressive Disorder, TMS uses focused electromagnetic pulses to modify neuronal activity in brain areas linked to mood regulation.
The Hope and Potential Benefits It Holds for Depressed People:
TMS is a ray of hope for those who are suffering from depression, offering alleviation and an enhanced quality of life because of its proven effectiveness, especially for instances who have resisted therapy.
The Value of Making Knowledgeable Decisions:
While TMS shows promise, it’s important for people to comprehend its intricacies, possible dangers, and advantages in order to make informed choices with the help of skilled healthcare experts.